If I had to pick the biggest game-changers for me as a food photographer, I would tell you three things: learning how to shoot in manual mode, learning my editing style and learning how to shoot with artificial lights. I emphasize control with photography all the time. The more control you have over your camera and lighting, the more creative you can get with how you shoot and edit your images. If you own a DSLR and shoot in Auto mode, you are letting the camera decide the settings for your image. It’s like carrying around a much clunkier iPhone. Manual mode, however, lets you adjust the settings to get the images you want. Remember, you are the photographer and the camera is a tool to help you.
How To Shoot in Manual Mode
I’m going to do things a little differently with this post. First, I’ll briefly discuss aperture, shutter speed and ISO with some images to demonstrate what I’m talking about. Next, I’m going to show you two poorly exposed images with their settings and I’ll discuss how to adjust the settings to make the image look better. Let’s turn the dial to Manual and get started.
For most of these images examples, I am shooting a bowl of cherries using only natural light. The window and diffuser are setup on the left and a white v-flat is setup on the right to bounce light back to the cherries. I am stabilizing my camera on a tripod and shooting tethered. None of the cherry images were edited. They are straight from the camera to demonstrate the differences between aperture, ISO and shutter speed.
Images E & F are edited images from two different photo shoots. One demonstrates motion blur and the other demonstrates motion freeze using different shutter speeds.
Read More About: My Current Gear for Food Photography
Aperture is the size of the hole in your lens and this ranges between lenses. For this example, I’m shooting with my 105mm 2.8 lens, so the smallest number is f2.8 while the largest number is f36.
The lower the number, the bigger the hole in the lens. In this case, f2.8 is the lowest number, but is actually the widest aperture. The lower the number, the more light you’ll let in and the more soft and dreamy the background will become.
The higher the number, the smaller the hole in the lens. So, f36 would be the highest number, but is also the smallest aperture. The higher the number, the less light you let in and the sharper your image will be all around. There are several “stops” between the lowest and highest number to allow you to pick the best setting for your image.
If you look at Image A below, the Aperture is set to f3. You’ll notice that the front cherry is in focus, but that there’s a softness and subtle “blurriness” happening around the focal point.
If you look at Image B below, the Aperture is set at f14. You’ll notice that the front cherry is in focus and everything around it is much sharper in comparison to Image A.
In order for me to demonstrate the higher aperture in image B (f14), I had to slow the shutter speed down to compensate for the lack of light. If I hadn’t slowed the shutter down from 1/25 (image A) to 1/2 (image B), the image would have been too dark.
ISO is how sensitive your camera’s sensor is to the light. The lower the ISO, the less light sensitivity and the less noise/grain you’ll see in your image. The higher the ISO, the more light sensitivity and the more noise/grain you’ll see in your image.
Cameras start showing noise at different ISO settings. Generally, the more advanced the camera, the higher you can go with ISO before seeing noise in your images. For example, my Nikon D750 starts showing noise at an ISO of 4000. Whereas, my first DSLR started showing noise at an ISO of 800.
Image C below is using a low ISO of 100.
Image D below is using a much higher ISO of 8000 and you’ll see some noise/grain in the image (especially in the background). To compensate for this high of an ISO, I had to bump up the shutter speed from 1/100 to 1/1250, otherwise the image would have been overexposed.
Read More About: Getting Started in Food Photography
Shutter speed is how long your shutter is open exposing the sensor to light. My Nikon D750 has a variety of shutter speeds ranging from 1/4000 (fastest) to 30 seconds (slowest).
The longer your shutter is open (slower shutter speed), the more light can reach the sensor. A slower shutter speed also helps you capture motion blur.
The shorter your shutter is open (faster shutter speed), means less light can reach the sensor. A faster shutter speed will also help you freeze motion with no blur.
Image E and Image F are different from the cherry images to show you the difference between motion blur vs. freezing motion.
In Image E below, I used a slower shutter speed of 1/60 to capture the motion blur of the pans being used in the kitchen. You’ll notice I also used a wider aperture, which allowed more light in and also helped get a softer background so we really focus on those pans.
TIP: Slower shutter speeds require a tripod, because if the camera isn’t stabilized any hand shake or vibration will make the image look blurry. A general rule I follow is any shutter speed set below 1/100 requires a tripod.
In Image F below, I used a faster shutter speed of 1/200 to freeze the ice splashing into the coffee. I used artificial lights (two strobes) for this shot, because with these settings, my image would have been too dark without the artificial lights. I shot this image by myself and used a tripod to stabilize the camera with a remote shutter.
Now that we’ve covered aperture, iso and shutter speed briefly, I want to dive into two poorly exposed images. These types of images are going to happen when you are first learning how to adjust your settings in manual mode. Keep in mind that all three settings work interchangeably and adjusting one might require you to adjust another to keep the image exposed correctly.
Poorly Exposed Images
Image G below is really overexposed. Notice the camera settings. What could I adjust to tone down the brightness?
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO AN OVEREXPOSED IMAGE
My first thought when looking at these settings is that the ISO is unnecessarily high. In food photography, the lower the ISO, the better. So reducing this could potentially be the best solution.
Another option is to bump up the shutter speed to let in less light.
Another possibility would be to increase the aperture to let in less light, but you would start to lose that softer background. If a softer background is what you’re going for, be sure to keep this in mind before going too high with your aperture.
I decided to reduce the ISO to 400. It was a great solution, because it removed the noise and toned down the brightness significantly to produce a beautifully exposed image.
Image H below is really underexposed making it too dark to see. Check out the camera settings. How could I adjust the settings to make the image brighter?
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO AN UNDEREXPOSED IMAGE
When reviewing the settings, I am noticing that the shutter speed is set pretty fast. Since I’m not trying to freeze motion with this image, I could start by slowing the shutter speed down. I’m also using a tripod, so I have the flexibility to slow the shutter speed down as much as I would need to.
Another option is that I could try going wider (lower number) with my aperture to let in more light. My lens for this shoot allows me to go as low as f2.8.
The ISO is set low for this image. But with food photography, this is a good thing. There’s still room to bump up the ISO if I need to, however I want to be careful of going too high and causing noise in my image.
I decided to slow down the shutter to 1/80 and it resulted in a nicely exposed image.
In conclusion, manual mode does require some practice and getting used to. So the more you practice, the easier it becomes and the more beautiful images you will create.
Read More About: Getting Started in Food Photography
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All images ©Regan Baroni 2020.